Synovial fluid is a viscous liquid found in the cavities of synovial joints. Several articular diseases are characterised by fluid accumulation in joints, so that arthrocentesis and morphological analysis are essential tools for differentiating a non-inflammatory arthropathy from an inflammatory arthropathy or an infectious disease. Cell count and differentiation are important diagnostic aspects in such patients. This first SEED article about synovial fluid summarises the typical characteristics and recommends procedures for specimen collection and handling.
The determination of the ‘erythrocyte sedimentation rate’ (ESR) is a commonly performed laboratory test with a traditional role. In this article, the mechanism of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation is described, the standardised procedure is explained and we provide an update on the clinical interpretation of the ESR.
The term ‘NRBC’ – ‘nucleated red blood cells’ – refers to precursor cells of the red blood cell lineage which still contain a nucleus. In healthy adults and older children, NRBC can only be found in blood-building bone marrow where they mature. Their appearance in peripheral blood points to extramedullary erythropoiesis or disruption of the blood - bone marrow barrier. Both possible scenarios can only be found in the course of a severe disease.
The capability to count blood cells beyond the classical 5-part differential with high reliability is a challenge for modern haematology analysers. Sysmex offers the immature granulocyte count (IG) optionally on the XE-series and XT-series analysers. It is a standard diagnostic parameter on the XT-4000i, the XE-5000 and on the new XN-series as well.
Thrombocytopenia occurs in 30% of all neonates admitted to intensive care. Young, immature platelets containing RNA, measured as “immature platelet fraction” (IPF) on Sysmex analyzers, can help to assess platelet production. Thus, they allow conclusions on both the etiology and the likely course of thrombocytopenia in neonates.
Thrombocytopenia is a disorder in which there is an abnormally low amount of platelets. It can be life threatening and its detection and precise count is extremely important. The immature platelet fraction (IPF parameter) measures young, reticulated platelets in peripheral Blood, revealing if the bone marrow is producing or not.